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Issue Essay

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Analytical!

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Argument Essay

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Analytical 2.

Sentence Correction

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So dogged were Frances Perkins' investigations of the garment industry, and her lobbying for wage and hour reform was persistent, Alfred E. Smith and Franklin D. Roosevelt recruited Perkins to work within the government, rather than as a social worker.

and her lobbying for wage and hour reform was persistent,

and lobbying for wage and hour reform was persistent, so that

her lobbying for wage and hour reform persistent, that

lobbying for wage and hour reform was so persistent,

so persistent her lobbying for wage and hour reform, that

Critical Reasoning

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Guidebook writer:  I have visited hotels throughout the country and have noticed that in those built before 1930 the quality of the original carpentry work is generally superior to that in hotels built afterward.  Clearly carpenters working on hotels before 1930 typically worked with more skill, care, and effort than carpenters who have worked on hotels built subsequently.
 
Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the guidebook writer's argument?

The quality of original carpentry in hotels is generally far superior to the quality of original carpentry in other structures, such as houses and stores.

Hotels built since 1930 can generally accommodate more guests than those built before 1930.

The materials available to carpenters working before 1930 were not significantly different in quality from the materials available to carpenters working after 1930.

The better the quality of original carpentry in a building, the less likely that building is to fall into disuse and be demolished.

The average length of apprenticeship for carpenters has declined significantly since 1930.

Critical Reasoning

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The average hourly wage of television assemblers in Vernland has long been significantly lower than that in neighboring Borodia.  Since Borodia dropped all tariffs on Vernlandian televisions three years ago, the number of televisions sold annually in Borodia has not changed.  However, recent statistics show a droip in the number of television assemblers in Borodia.  Therefore, updated trade statistics will probably indicate that the number of televisions Borodia imports annually from Vernland has increased.
 
Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

The number of television assemblers in Vernland has increased by at least as much as the number of television assemblers in Borodia has decreased.

Televisions assembled in Vernland have features that televisions assembled in Borodia do not have.

The average number of hours it takes a Borodian television assembler to assemble a television has not decreased significantly during the past three years.

The number of televisions assembled annually in Vernland has increased significantly during the past three years.

The difference between the hourly wage of television assemblers in Vernland and the hourly wage of television assemblers in Borodia is likely to decrease in the next few years.

Sentence Correction

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The Quechuans believed that all things participated in both the material level and the mystical level of reality, and many individual Quechuans claimed to have contact with it directly with an ichana (dream) experience.

contact with it directly with

direct contact with it by way of

contact with the last directly through

direct contact with the latter by means of

contact directly with the mystical level due to

Reading Comprehension

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    Historians who study European women of the Renaissance try to measure "independence," "options," and other indicators of the degree to which the expression of women's individuality was either permitted or suppressed.Influenced by Western individualism, these historians define a peculiar form of personhood: an innately bounded unit, autonomous and standing apart from both nature and society. An anthropologist, however, would contend that a person can be conceived in ways other than as an "individual." In many societies a person's identity is not intrinsically unique and self-contained but instead is defined within a complex web of social relationships.

    In her study of the fifteenth-century Florentine widow Alessandra Strozzi, a historian who specializes in European women of the Renaissance attributes individual intention and authorship of actions to her subject. This historian assumes that Alessandra had goals and interests different from those of her sons, yet much of the historian's own research reveals that Alessandra acted primarily as a champion of her sons' interests, taking their goals as her own. Thus Alessandra conforms more closely to the anthropologist's notion that personal motivation is embedded in a social context. Indeed, one could argue that Alessandra did not distinguish her personhood from that of her sons. In Renaissance Europe the boundaries of the con-ceptual self were not always firm and closed and did not necessarily coincide with the boundaries of the bodily self.
In the first paragraph, the author of the passage mentions a contention that would be made by an anthropologist most likely in order to

present a theory that will be undermined in the discussion of a historian's study later in the passage

offer a perspective on the concept of personhood that can usefully be applied to the study of women in Renaissance Europe

undermine the view that the individuality of European women of the Renaissance was largely suppressed

argue that anthropologists have applied the Western concept of individualism in their research

lay the groundwork for the conclusion that Alessandra's is a unique case among European women of the Renaissance whose lives have been studied by historians

Reading Comprehension

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    Historians who study European women of the Renaissance try to measure "independence," "options," and other indicators of the degree to which the expression of women's individuality was either permitted or suppressed.Influenced by Western individualism, these historians define a peculiar form of personhood: an innately bounded unit, autonomous and standing apart from both nature and society. An anthropologist, however, would contend that a person can be conceived in ways other than as an "individual." In many societies a person's identity is not intrinsically unique and self-contained but instead is defined within a complex web of social relationships.

    In her study of the fifteenth-century Florentine widow Alessandra Strozzi, a historian who specializes in European women of the Renaissance attributes individual intention and authorship of actions to her subject. This historian assumes that Alessandra had goals and interests different from those of her sons, yet much of the historian's own research reveals that Alessandra acted primarily as a champion of her sons' interests, taking their goals as her own. Thus Alessandra conforms more closely to the anthropologist's notion that personal motivation is embedded in a social context. Indeed, one could argue that Alessandra did not distinguish her personhood from that of her sons. In Renaissance Europe the boundaries of the con-ceptual self were not always firm and closed and did not necessarily coincide with the boundaries of the bodily self.
According to the passage, much of the research on Alessandra Strozzi done by the historian mentioned in the second paragraph (the highlighted text) supports which of the following conclusions?

Alessandra used her position as her sons' sole guardian to further interests different from those of her sons.

Alessandra unwillingly sacrificed her own interests in favor of those of her sons.

Alessandra's actions indicate that her motivations and intentions were those of an independent individual.

Alessandra's social context encouraged her to take independent action.

Alessandra regarded her sons' goals and interests as her own.

Reading Comprehension

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    Historians who study European women of the Renaissance try to measure "independence," "options," and other indicators of the degree to which the expression of women's individuality was either permitted or suppressed.Influenced by Western individualism, these historians define a peculiar form of personhood: an innately bounded unit, autonomous and standing apart from both nature and society. An anthropologist, however, would contend that a person can be conceived in ways other than as an "individual." In many societies a person's identity is not intrinsically unique and self-contained but instead is defined within a complex web of social relationships.

    In her study of the fifteenth-century Florentine widow Alessandra Strozzi, a historian who specializes in European women of the Renaissance attributes individual intention and authorship of actions to her subject. This historian assumes that Alessandra had goals and interests different from those of her sons, yet much of the historian's own research reveals that Alessandra acted primarily as a champion of her sons' interests, taking their goals as her own. Thus Alessandra conforms more closely to the anthropologist's notion that personal motivation is embedded in a social context. Indeed, one could argue that Alessandra did not distinguish her personhood from that of her sons. In Renaissance Europe the boundaries of the con-ceptual self were not always firm and closed and did not necessarily coincide with the boundaries of the bodily self.
The passage suggests that the historian mentioned in the second paragraph (the highlighted text) would be most likely to agree with which of the following assertions regarding Alessandra Strozzi?

Alessandra was able to act more independently than most women of her time because she was a widow.

Alessandra was aware that her personal motivation was embedded in a social context.

Alessandra had goals and interests similar to those of many other widows in her society.

Alessandra is an example of a Renaissance woman who expressed her individuality through independent action.

Alessandra was exceptional because she was able to effect changes in the social constraints placed upon women in her society.

Critical Reasoning

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When a new restaurant, Martin's Cafe, opened in Riverville last year, many people predicted that business at the Wildflower Inn, Riverville's only other restaurant, would suffer from the competition.  Surprisingly, however, in the year since Martin's Cafe opened, the average number of meals per night served at the Wildflower Inn has increased significantly.
 
Which of the following, if true, most helps to explain the increase?

Unlike the Wildflower Inn, Martin's Cafe serves considerably more meals on weekends than it does on weekdays.

Most of the customers of Martin's Cafe had never dined in Riverville before this restaurant opened, and on most days Martin's Cafe attracts more customers than it can seat.

The profit per meal is higher, on average, for meals served at Martin's Cafe than for those served at the Wildflower Inn.

The Wildflower Inn is not open on Sundays, and therefore Riverville residents who choose to dine out on that day must either eat at Martin's Cafe or go to neighboring towns to eat.

A significant proportion of the staff at Martin's Cafe are people who formerly worked at the Wildflower Inn and were hired away by the owner of Martin's Cafe.

Reading Comprehension

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    Behavior science courses should be gaining prominence in business school curricula. Recent theoretical work convincingly shows why behavioral factors such as organizational culture and employee relations are among the few remaining sources of sustainable competitive advantage in modern organizations. Furthermore, empirical evidence demonstrates clear linkages between human resource (HR) practices based in the behavioral sciences and various aspects of a firm's financial success. Additionally, some of the world's most successful organizations have made unique HR practices a core element of their overall business strategies.

    Yet the behavior sciences are struggling for credibility in many business schools. Surveys show that business students often regard behavioral studies as peripheral to the mainstream business curriculum. This perception can be explained by the fact that business students, hoping to increase their attractiveness to prospective employers, are highly sensitive to business norms and practices, and current business practices have generally been moving away from an emphasis on understanding human behavior and toward more mechanistic organizational models. Furthermore, the status of HR professionals within organizations tends to be lower than that of other executives. Students' perceptions would matter less if business schools were not increasingly dependent on external funding—form legislatures, businesses, and private foundations-for survival. Concerned with their institutions' ability to attract funding, administrators are increasingly targeting low-enrollment courses and degree programs for elimination. The pimary purpose of the passage is to

propose a particular change to business school curricula

characterize students' perceptions of business school curricula

predict the consequences of a particular change in business school curricula

challenge one explanation for the failure to adopt a particular change in business school curricula

identify factors that have affected the prestige of a particular field in business school curricula

Reading Comprehension

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    Behavior science courses should be gaining prominence in business school curricula. Recent theoretical work convincingly shows why behavioral factors such as organizational culture and employee relations are among the few remaining sources of sustainable competitive advantage in modern organizations. Furthermore, empirical evidence demonstrates clear linkages between human resource (HR) practices based in the behavioral sciences and various aspects of a firm's financial success. Additionally, some of the world's most successful organizations have made unique HR practices a core element of their overall business strategies.

    Yet the behavior sciences are struggling for credibility in many business schools. Surveys show that business students often regard behavioral studies as peripheral to the mainstream business curriculum. This perception can be explained by the fact that business students, hoping to increase their attractiveness to prospective employers, are highly sensitive to business norms and practices, and current business practices have generally been moving away from an emphasis on understanding human behavior and toward more mechanistic organizational models. Furthermore, the status of HR professionals within organizations tends to be lower than that of other executives. Students' perceptions would matter less if business schools were not increasingly dependent on external funding—form legislatures, businesses, and private foundations-for survival. Concerned with their institutions' ability to attract funding, administrators are increasingly targeting low-enrollment courses and degree programs for elimination.
The author of the passage mentions "empirical evidence" (in the highlighted text) primarily in order to

question the value of certain commonly used HR practices

illustrate a point about the methodology behind recent theoretical work in the behavioral sciences

support a claim about the importance that business schools should place on courses in the behavioral sciences

draw a distinction between two different factors that affect the financial success of a business

explain how the behavioral sciences have shaped HR practices in some business organizations

Reading Comprehension

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    Behavior science courses should be gaining prominence in business school curricula. Recent theoretical work convincingly shows why behavioral factors such as organizational culture and employee relations are among the few remaining sources of sustainable competitive advantage in modern organizations. Furthermore, empirical evidence demonstrates clear linkages between human resource (HR) practices based in the behavioral sciences and various aspects of a firm's financial success. Additionally, some of the world's most successful organizations have made unique HR practices a core element of their overall business strategies.

    Yet the behavior sciences are struggling for credibility in many business schools. Surveys show that business students often regard behavioral studies as peripheral to the mainstream business curriculum. This perception can be explained by the fact that business students, hoping to increase their attractiveness to prospective employers, are highly sensitive to business norms and practices, and current business practices have generally been moving away from an emphasis on understanding human behavior and toward more mechanistic organizational models. Furthermore, the status of HR professionals within organizations tends to be lower than that of other executives. Students' perceptions would matter less if business schools were not increasingly dependent on external funding—form legislatures, businesses, and private foundations-for survival. Concerned with their institutions' ability to attract funding, administrators are increasingly targeting low-enrollment courses and degree programs for elimination.
The author of the passage suggests which of the following about HR professionals in business organizations?

They are generally skeptical about the value of mechanistic organizational models.

Their work increasingly relies on an understanding of human behavior.

Their work generally has little effect on the financial performance of those organizations.

Their status relative to other business executives affects the attitude of business school students toward the behavioral sciences.

Their practices are unaffected by the relative prominence of the behavioral sciences within business schools.

Reading Comprehension

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    Behavior science courses should be gaining prominence in business school curricula. Recent theoretical work convincingly shows why behavioral factors such as organizational culture and employee relations are among the few remaining sources of sustainable competitive advantage in modern organizations. Furthermore, empirical evidence demonstrates clear linkages between human resource (HR) practices based in the behavioral sciences and various aspects of a firm's financial success. Additionally, some of the world's most successful organizations have made unique HR practices a core element of their overall business strategies.

    Yet the behavior sciences are struggling for credibility in many business schools. Surveys show that business students often regard behavioral studies as peripheral to the mainstream business curriculum. This perception can be explained by the fact that business students, hoping to increase their attractiveness to prospective employers, are highly sensitive to business norms and practices, and current business practices have generally been moving away from an emphasis on understanding human behavior and toward more mechanistic organizational models. Furthermore, the status of HR professionals within organizations tends to be lower than that of other executives. Students' perceptions would matter less if business schools were not increasingly dependent on external funding—form legislatures, businesses, and private foundations-for survival. Concerned with their institutions' ability to attract funding, administrators are increasingly targeting low-enrollment courses and degree programs for elimination.
The author of the passage considers each of the following to be a factor that has contributed to the prevailing attitude in business schools toward the behavioral sciences EXCEPT

business students' sensitivity to current business norms and practices

the relative status of HR professionals among business executives

business schools' reliance on legislatures, businesses, and private foundations for funding

businesses' tendency to value mechanistic organizational models over an understanding of human behavior

theoretical work on the relationship between behavioral factors and a firm's financial performance

Critical Reasoning

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It is true of both men and women that those who marry as young adults live longer than those who never marry.  This dose not show that marriage causes people to live longer, since, as compared with other people of the same age, young adults who are about to get married have fewer of the unhealthy habits that can cause a person to have a shorter life, most notably smoking and immoderate drinking of alcohol.
 
Which of the following, if true, most strengthens the argument above?

Marriage tends to cause people to engage less regularly in sports that involve risk of bodily harm.

A married person who has an unhealthy habit is more likely to give up that habit than a person with the same habit who is unmarried.

A person who smokes is much more likely than a nonsmoker to marry a person who smokes at the time of marriage, and the same is true for people who drink alcohol immoderately.

Among people who marry as young adults, most of those who give up an unhealthy habit after marriage do not resume the habit later in life.

Among people who as young adults neither drink alcohol immoderately nor smoke, those who never marry live as long as those who marry.

Sentence Correction

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Even though more money was removed out of stock funds in July as in any month since October 1987, sales of fund shares in July were not as low as an industry trade group had previously estimated.

as in any month since October 1987, sales of fund shares in July were not as low as

as had been in any other month since October 1987, sales of fund shares in July were not as low as what

than there was in any other month since October 1987, sales of fund shares in July were not as low as that which

than in any month since October 1987, sales of fund shares in July were not as low as

than in any other month since October 1987, sales of fund shares in July were not as low as what

Critical Reasoning

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Lightbox, Inc., owns almost all of the movie theaters in Washington County and has announced plans to double the number of movie screens it has in the county within five years.  Yet attendance at Lightbox's theaters is only just large enough for profitability now and the county's population is not expected to increase over the next ten years.  Clearly, therefore, if there is indeed no increase in population, Lightbox's new screens are unlikely to prove profitable.
 
Which of the following, if true about Washington County, most seriously weakens the argument?

Though little change in the size of the population is expected, a pronounced shift toward a younger, more affluent, and more entertainment-oriented population is expected to occur.

The sales of snacks and drinks in its movie theaters account for more of Lightbox's profits than ticket sales do.

In selecting the mix of movies shown at its theaters, Lightbox's policy is to avoid those that appeal to only a small segment of the moviegoing population.

Spending on video purchases, as well as spending on video rentals, is currently no longer increasing.

There are no population centers in the county that are not already served by at least one of the movie theaters that Lightbox owns and operates.

Critical Reasoning

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Maize contains the vitamin niacin, but not in a form the body can absorb.  Pellagra is a disease that results from niacin deficiency.  When maize was introduced into southern Europe from the Americas in the eighteenth century, it quickly became a dietary staple, and many Europeans who came to subsist primarily on maize developed pellagra.  Pellagra was virtually unknown at that time in the Americas, however, even among people who subsisted primarily on maize.
 
Which of the following, if true, most helps to explain the contrasting incidence of pellagra described above?

Once introduced into southern Europe, maize became popular with landowners because of its high yields relative to other cereal crops.

Maize grown in the Americas contained more niacin than maize grown in Europe did.

Traditional ways of preparing maize in the Americas convert maize's niacin into a nutritionally useful form.

In southern Europe many of the people who consumed maize also ate niacin-rich foods.

Before the discovery of pellagra's link with niacin, it was widely believed that the disease was an infection that could be transmitted from person to person.

Sentence Correction

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Today's technology allows manufacturers to make small cars more fuel-efficient now than at any time in their production history.

small cars more fuel-efficient now than at any time in their

small cars that are more fuel-efficient than they were at any time in their

small cars that are more fuel-efficient than those at any other time in

more fuel-efficient small cars than those at any other time in their

more fuel-efficient small cars now than at any time in